Osteoporosis is a disorder of reduced bone density and increased risk of fractures. There a genetic predisposition to your bone mass peak, in your 20s after which bone loss occurs with age and menopause. Both peak bone mass and subsequent bone loss can be modified by nutrition, physical activity, concomitant diseases and medications.
Osteoporosis risk reduction requires adequate calcium, vitamin D, physical activity, and avoiding smoking and excessive alcohol. Bone density predicts fracture risk. along with age, weight, medical and family history.
Most treatments stop further bone loss (anti-resorptive) – HRT (oestrogens, SERMS-raloxifene), bisphosphonates (alendronate, risedronate, and Zoledronate) and denosumab. With severe bone loss, Teriparatide (parathyroid hormone) can rebuild bone.
All persons with osteoporotic fractures should receive treatment. In those with reduced bone mineral density, treatment may be indicated depending on the severity of of bone loss and other risk factors.